- Karl Weick, "Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems", Administrative Science Quarterly, 21 (1976), 1-9 (part).
- "The Management of Organizational Change among Loosely Coupled Elements" (1982) by Karl Weick reprinted in his book Making Sense of the Organization (2001)
- James Douglas Orton and Karl E. Weick, Loosely Coupled Systems: A Reconceptualization, Academy of Management Review 15 (2):203-223 1990
記得這 LCS曾在 Simon的論文提過
不過"管理行為"一書兩次提到他Weick 都指"心理學"參與等 其實他的最末一組織(政府)設計個案 可以從它出發嗎
如果是下述說法 那這是HAS 人工科學中的一小部分主題
A good working definition: loosely coupled is an attribute of systems, referring to an approach to designing interfaces across modules to reduce the interdependencies across modules or components – in particular, reducing the risk that changes within one module will create unanticipated changes within other modules. This approach specifically seeks to increase flexibility in adding modules, replacing modules and changing operations within individual modules. (Note: if any of you have come across a better definition of loosely coupled, please let me know – I’d like to follow up on this in a future blog.)
Three things stand out from this definition. First, it assumes a modular approach to design. Second, it values flexibility. Third, it seeks to increase flexibility by focusing on design of interfaces.